According to U.S. Census Bureau estimates, there were 41,844,000 youth age 10-19 in the United States, 14% of the total U.S. population, in 2012 . In New York State, the population of youth age 10-19 is estimated to be 13% of the state's total .
Ethnicity, Race, National OriginRacial/ethnic diversity is greater in the child population than in the adult U.S. population, and diversity among adolescents is increasing . Growth among young, non-white populations is occurring largely in suburbs and small cities .
Estimates suggest that by 2018, children and youth of color (under age 18) will be the majority youth population  By 2060, the percentage of Hispanic children is expected to reach 34%, while the percentage of white, non-Hispanic children will drop to 36%; together, children who belong to ethnic/racial "minority" groups will comprise 64% of the youth population .
Twenty-four percent of all children (age 0-17) are first or second generation immigrants (2014 numbers, here defined as living in the U.S. with at least one foreign-born parent) . Among children age 5-17 in 2012, 22% of children did not speak English at home; however, only 5% of these children had difficulty speaking English .
Geographic SettingsIn 2002, over half (54%) of adolescents age 12-17 lived in suburbs, 27% in rural areas, and 19% in central cities .
In 2007, about 82% of children lived in large urban or suburban areas, and nearly 9% lived in small towns (under 50,000) or more rural areas .
Family IncomeMedian family income in U.S. households with children was $60,700 in 2013 .
The percentage of adolescents (age 12-17) living in families with low income increased from 35% in 2007 to roughly 41% in 2013 . Nineteen percent of this age group live below the poverty line .
Sixty-one percent of black adolescents live in low-income families, as do 60% of Hispanic, 58% of American Indian, 33% of Asian, 28% of white, and 40% of adolescents of some other race. In this age group, over half (53%) of children of immigrant parents have low incomes. Low income is defined here as less than 200% of the federal poverty line .
In 2013, 31% of children lived with parent(s) who did not have steady, full-time employment . In 2012, 22% of all children (under age 18) lived in families that were at times unable to provide enough food .
HomelessnessEstimates of homelessness among adolescents vary a great deal. In 2013, youth were included for the first time in the annual "point-in-time" tally of the homeless conducted by communities across the United States. In what is likely to be an under-count, 47,000 youth (unaccompanied children and young adults under age 25) -- nearly 8% of the homeless population -- were found to be homeless on the night of the count . Estimates from 1998 and 1999 suggest that 1.6-1.7 million youth experience at least one episode of homelessness each year .
Homelessness estimates for youth who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) vary from 6-35%. Pregnant and parenting youth are also at high risk for homelessness; one study found that nearly half of youth living on the streets and 33% of youth in shelters had been pregnant or caused a pregnancy; and roughly 10% of homeless adolescent women are pregnant at the time they are homeless . As youth who have been in foster care transition out of the system, many experience homelessness (11-37%) or unstable housing (25-50%) .
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