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Demographics

 
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Demographics
In this section, we offer selected statistics regarding U.S. youth, together with a few focused on New York State. Links and endnotes will connect you to rich resources for further information. These pages will be updated periodically.

U.S. Teen Demographics

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, there were 40,717,537 youth age 10-19 in the United States, 14% of the total U.S. population [1]. In New York State, according to the 2010 U.S. Census, youth age 10-19 made up 13% of the state's total population [2].

Ethnicity, Race, National Origin

Racial/ethnic diversity is greater in the adolescent population than in the adult U.S. population, and diversity among adolescents is increasing [3]. Growth among young, non-white populations is occurring largely in suburbs and small cities [4].

Estimates suggest that by 2023, the percentage of white, non-Hispanic (NH) children will drop below 50%. By 2050, the percentage of Hispanic children is expected to reach 39%, overtaking the percentage of white-NH (38%) children [5].

In 2006, 11% of adolescents (ages 15-24) residing in the U.S. were born outside of the United States [3]. Twenty-three percent of all children (age 0-17) are first or second generation immigrants (2011 numbers, here defined as living in the U.S. with at least one foreign-born parent) [6]. Among children age 5-17 in 2010, 22% of children did not speak English at home; however, only 5% of these children had difficulty speaking English [6].

Geographic Settings

In 2002, over half (54%) of adolescents age 12-17 lived in suburbs, 27% in rural areas, and 19% in central cities [7].

The number of children and youth in rural areas declined 10% between 2000 and 2008 [4].

Family Income

The percentage of adolescents (age 12-17) living in families with low income has risen since 2000. In a span of nine years (2000-2009), the number of adolescents living in poverty increased by 29% [8].

In 2010, 40% of adolescents age 12-17 lived in families with low incomes, including 18% below the federal poverty line. Fifty-nine percent of black adolescents lived in low-income families, as did 59% of American Indian, 59% of Hispanic, 34% of Asian, and 27% of white adolescents. Low income is defined here as less than 200% of the federal poverty line [9].

In 2010, 22% of all children (under age 18) lived in families that were at times unable to provide enough food [10].

Homelessness

Estimates of homelessness among adolescents vary a great deal. Estimates from 1998 and 1999 suggest that 1.6-1.7 million youth experience at least one episode of homelessness each year. Homelessness estimates for youth who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) vary from 6-35%. Pregnant and parenting youth are also at high risk for homelessness; one study found that nearly half of youth living on the streets and 33% of youth in shelters had been pregnant or caused a pregnancy; and roughly 10% of homeless adolescent women are pregnant at the time they are homeless [11].

Endnotes

[1]   U.S. Census Bureau. (2011, May). Age and sex composition: 2010. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from
census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-03.pdf (PDF: 2.0M)
 
[2]   U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). Age groups and sex: 2010 - Geography: New York. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from
factfinder2.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/index.xhtml
 
[3]   National Adolescent Health Information Center. (2008). Fact sheet on demographics: Adolescents & Young Adults. Retrieved October 24, 2011, from
nahic.ucsf.edu//downloads/Demographics08.pdf (PDF: 596K)
 
[4]   Johnson, K. M., & Lichter, D. T. (2010, Spring). The changing faces of America's children and youth (Carsey Institute Issue Brief No. 15). Retrieved September 17, 2012, from
www.human.cornell.edu/pam/outreach/loader.cfm?csModule=security/g
etfile&PageID=50050
(PDF: 1.8M)
 
[5]   Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2012). America's children in brief: Key national indicators of well-being, 2012: Demographic background. Retrieved September 17, 2012, from
childstats.gov/americaschildren/demo.asp
 
[6]   Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2012). America's children in brief: Key national indicators of well-being, 2012: Family and social environment. Retrieved September 17, 2012, from
childstats.gov/americaschildren/famsoc.asp
 
[7]   National Adolescent Health Information Center. (2003). Fact sheet on demographics: Adolescents. Retrieved October 24, 2011, from
nahic.ucsf.edu/downloads/Demographics.pdf (PDF: 1.5M)
 
[8]   Chau, M., Thampi, K., & Wright, V.R. (2010, October). Basic facts about low-income children, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the National Center for Children in Poverty website
nccp.org/publications/pub_974.html
 
[9]   Addy, S., & Wight, V. R. (2012, February). Basic facts about low-income children, 2010. Retrieved September 17, 2012, from
nccp.org/publications/pub_1051.html
 
[10]   Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2012). America's children in brief: Key national indicators of well-being, 2012: Economic circumstances. Retrieved September 17, 2012, from
childstats.gov/americaschildren/eco.asp
 
[11]   Toro, P. A., Dworsky, A., & Fowler, P. J. (2007). Homeless youth in the United States: Recent research findings and intervention approaches. Retrieved October 24, 2011, from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development website
huduser.org/portal/publications/homeless/p6.html
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